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pdf.png 2007 - March - Page - Windah - Grantleigh - Coal Line Capacity Improvements

Charles Page BSc. Elec/Electron, MBA, FIRSE

Director of Marketing & Sales Westinghouse Rail Systems Australia

The Windah-Grantleigh project arose out of Queensland Rail's strategic planning process that identified line capacity improvements required in the Blackwater system in Central Queensland. It was the first in a series of such projects conducted under a new contract model, designed to deliver cost effective and high quality upgrades in the minimum possible time in a collaborative environment. The Windah-Grantleigh was successfully delivered in a very challenging timescale and included a number of novel technical features. In particular, it was the first Australian application of the WESTRACE WNC in a hot standby configuration.



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pdf.png 2007 - March - Godber - Fundamentals of Signalling a Heavy Haul Railway

Anthony Godber BSc(Eng), CEng, MIET, MIRSE

Pilbara Iron

Signalling of any railway aims to meet the often conflicting demands of safety and operational efficiency in the most cost-effective manner possible. Heavy haul railways have some very different requirements to passenger and mixed traffic routes. Using the Pilbara Iron network in the remote north-west of Western Australia as an example, this paper traces the path from operational requirement to the layout and operation of the track and signalling. With long trains and high axle loads, the ability to maintain the railway also creates specific infrastructure configuration and capacity requirements.

Some more recent challenges arising from the need to substantially increase the capacity of the railway are also discussed. The ability to build, test and commission additional facilities while continuing to meet the existing schedule is now a major consideration.



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pdf.png 2007 - March - Bolster - QR Network Access Master Planning

Patrick Bolster BA ACA (ICAEW)

QR Network Access

Until 2005 QR Network Access was required to obtain approval for its planned multi-user related investments
able to recover the investment from customers in its below rail access charges. QRNA could still construct new investments however this would entail significant investment risk. In 2006 QR Network Access initiated its first Coal Rail Infrastructure Master Plan ("Master Plan"), as part of a new investment approval process in its second Access Undertaking.

This paper seeks to outline the Master Planning process conducted by QRNA, and explain the development of the current investment path.



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pdf.png 2007 - March - Baayens - Asset Protection for Heavy Haul Railway

Written by A.Baayens Technical Officer

Union Switch & Signa

Heavy Haul Railways are often owned and operated by bulk commodity producers. Their rail operators are focused mainly on production. Although profit, costs, growth and sustainability are important to the operators, they will be focused and measured daily on productivity which can be simply described as, the number of tonnes of product actually delivered versus the planned tonnes. In boom times operators will be striving to increase planned tonnes and to do this cycle times must be reduced or more train consists operated.

The railway is part of a production process. Although not productive in itself, it is necessary for the transport of the bulk product typically between the mine and port. Rail is usually the most efficient means of transporting bulk product over long distances.

The railway adds to the unit cost of the product. The factors that affect the unit cost of the product by rail are:

· Train crewing costs
· The distance required to transport the product
· Track gradient
· The effectiveness of motive power
· The efficiency of rolling stock used
· The varying cost of fuel or energy required for motive power
· The method of loading and unloading
· The maintenance and repair of railway infrastructure and rolling stock
· Capital costs
· Asset utilisation
· Delays in product delivery

As the railway adds cost to the production process it is continuously under scrutiny to minimise costs wherever possible.

Railways must minimise the cost of railing bulk product and safeguard production against delay and losses. It is vital for the production process to have a continuous flow of product for maximum efficiency and minimal cost. If the flow of traffic on a finely tuned railway is stopped an immediate loss is incurred. It is vital therefore to either anticipate and prevent the cause of disruption, or be able identify and respond immediately to the cause of the disruption.



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pdf.png 2007 - March - 6 Wardrop Caldwell - Application of Problem Space Search to Heavy Haul Scheduling and Infrastruc



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pdf.png 2007 - March - 3 Gifford, Moore, Borg - Axle Counters over Turnouts in the Hunter Valley Heavy Haul



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pdf.png 2007 - July - Weerakody - Innovative Project Delivery Solutions

Don Weerakody MIRSE, MIEAust, MIET

Public Transport Authority

This paper outlines two signalling projects recently undertaken by the Public Transport Authority of Western Australia (PTA). Each of these projects dealt with unusual circumstances, resulting from acts of vandalism. They both required innovative solutions as the approaches normally employed were unsuitable.

The Boom Gate Motor Protection Project is a solution to level crossing failures caused by vandals hanging on the boom arms at level crossings as they are returning to the upright position. This causes the boom motor to trip and the boom remains in the down position. The crossing remains in this state for some time or until a technician arrives and resets the boom motor circuit breaker. This leads to prolonged closure of the level crossing and encourages motorists to drive around the boom gates. This project addresses this problem, and also allows provision of other features such as enhanced monitoring of the level crossing equipment.

The Track-Based Transmission System for Signalling Project was implemented due to the theft of aerial line circuitry over a 5.5km section of track between Armadale and Mundijong. Direct replacement of the existing signalling infrastructure was not possible due to damage to the poles and the unavailability of appropriate aerial line cable in a short space of time. The railway reserve for this section also falls under the protection of state and federal environmental protection legislation enacted after the original installation of the signalling equipment. Re-instatement of the existing system using cables would have caused an unacceptable impact to the local ecology due to the trenching required.

The Boom Gate Motor Protection is in operation at two level crossings and is being progressively installed at all urban level crossings. The Track-Based Transmission System for Signalling is successfully in operation on the Armadale to Mundijong railway.



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pdf.png 2007 - July - Webb - Optical Fibre for Freight Railways : Or How A Radio Communications Engineer Saw the Light

John Webb BE (Elec), MIEAust

COMMSIG

Telecommunications companies have been using Optical Fibre for many years. So why did it take those of us in the Railway community in Western Australia so long to see the light? As often happens in Engineering, it takes time before a good idea can become a good Engineering solution.

This paper describes how optical fibre became an integral part of Rio Tinto's Pilbara Iron Railway Operations.



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pdf.png 2007 - July - Samaan -A Position Paper on Software Validation and Dependability for Safety Critical Systems

Noel Samaan, PhD Senior Member IEEE (USA), Member IEE (UK), CPEng

R&D Software Systems Group Ansaldo STS

As the reliance on software is significantly increasing in railway industries replacing electronic, pseudoprogrammable electromechanical devices and wayside signals (in the future), the demand for quantifiable and traceable techniques to determine the trustability and dependability of software is becoming more critical. Given the pressures on delivering projects on-time with inherent heavier contribution of software to decision– making dynamics of train operations whether related to train control, routing, database-driven scheduling or issuance of train orders and, given the rather fluidic nature of software development and change in requirements (when compared with hardware domain), validation of software applications for railway at relatively high confidence levels and low cost is a challenge that has become a significant ingredient to project over-run and higher than estimated project costs.

This paper reviews the requirements for safety-critical systems for railway, highlights the main differences between software and hardware approaches used to determine product reliability and presents a case study to illustrate how modelling and metric-driven approaches to software validation can lead to high assurance levels whilst reducing the validation cost. The paper concludes with a few recommendations where railway industry can benefit from other industries where software became a core activity at later stages of business evolution which demanded the delivery of faster, cheaper and better quality software applications.



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pdf.png 2007 - July - Bilston - Design Development of Communications System for the Pilbara Iron Ore and Infrastructure Project

Simon Bilston B Eng, MIEAust

Ansaldo STS Australia Pty Ltd (Formerly Union Switch & Signal)

This paper will discuss, as a case study, the design development for the communications system design as undertaken by Ansaldo STS Australia (formerly known as Union Switch & Signal) that will support the Pilbara Iron Ore and Infrastructure Project. This project includes a railway between Port Hedland and Cloud Break mine in the Pilbara region of WA to be constructed for The Pilbara Infrastructure (a subsidiary of the Fortescue Metals Group). Included will be a review of the preliminary project history and the base requirements for the system, followed by discussion on the key processes used to accelerate the decision making process and finally a summary of the key systems presented in the Preliminary Design Report for the communications system.

Ansaldo STS Australia assisted The Pilbara Infrastructure in the initial feasibility process that resulted in a number of important 'directions' that the design was to take in order to minimise TPI's exposure to project and cost risk. The two main directions taken were for the use of microwave radio over an optic fibre solution for the backhaul communications and the use of an analogue voice radio system over a digital system.

The process of "Integrated Project Teams" was utilised to fast track the resolution of key design decisions. The process provided a valuable method for both Ansaldo STS Australia and The Pilbara Infrastructure to quickly explore and agree on a direction when faced with key technical decisions. The process was largely successful with a few noted improvements that will be applied to future projects completed by the Ansaldo STS Australia communications team.

The resultant Preliminary Design Report for the communications system is biased toward robust, proven technical solutions that are fit for purpose and will provide the railway with reliable support for operations both during important initial stages and into the future.



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pdf.png 2007 - July - McCluskey - WestNet Rail - Building Resilience and Redundancy into a Centralised Train Control System

Phil McCluskey B App Sc (Eng)

Project Manager Train Control Centralisation Australasian Railway Consultancy Services

WestNet Rail is in the process of centralising its Train Control Operations in Western Australia. Given the strategic importance of the new facility, a significant effort has gone into ensuring that the new system utilises high level resilience and redundancy strategies, whilst maintaining a flexible platform for business needs. This paper describes how this was achieved in an environment of high technical and commercial risks, tight timeframes and constrained resources.



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pdf.png 2007 - July -Eyre - Signalling of the Southern Suburbs Railway

Paul Eyre Project Manager

Ansaldo STS / Union Switch & Signal Pty Ltd

The 71 km extension of the Perth electrified rail network from Perth through to Mandurah, commonly referred to as the Southern Suburbs Railway (SSR), commenced in 2003 and is due for completion towards the end of 2007. The SSR project is divided into several packages, namely A-G, involving numerous engineering disciplines and various contractor skill sets.

Package "A" comprises all new railway infrastructure including earthworks, track and traction overhead works (except for the new bored tunnel and associated systems constructed by Package "F") and all the signalling and communication works. Packages "B", "C" & "D" cover the construction of 8 new stations.

Package "E" covers alterations done by Mainroads WA to the Kwinana Freeway to accommodate the new railway line in the median from Perth to Thomas Road. Package "G" covers the train control works for the SSR.

Package "A" main contractor and electrical systems subcontractor (Rail Link Joint Venture and ODG) employed Ansaldo STS to do the signalling system design, procurement of all signalling equipment, and testing and commissioning of the signalling system from Perth to Mandurah including the section through the bored tunnel section. Installation of the signalling equipment and "setting to work" were excluded.

Package "G" main contractor is Ansaldo STS. Package "G" comprises replacement of the original system installed in 1989 when Perth was electrified by a new Phoenix Train Control System, and responsibility for the design, implementation and testing of modifications to the Phoenix Train Control System to incorporate the new Mandurah line, and design and supply of the Customer Information System for both the new and existing network.

The construction of the SSR will be introducing new systems architecture, technology and practices to that previously used by the Public Transport Authority of Western Australia (PTA), the owner and operator of the Perth rail network. This paper identifies some of these innovations, and addresses challenges faced by Ansaldo STS to complete their works under Packages "A" & "G".



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pdf.png 2006 - Nov - Welsby - Australian Rail Track Corporation Advanced Train Management System



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pdf.png 2006 - Nov - Welsby - ARTC New Communications System



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pdf.png 2006 - Nov - Ness - A Short History of Adelaide Railyard ( 150 Years in 20 Minutes )

David Ness MIEAust, MIRSE

Connell Wagner

When first asked if I would be prepared to present a paper for the Adelaide IRSE I was somewhat mystified as to what I would present about. Although I have had a considerable association with the Adelaide urban network over the last 20 years it has, to be honest, some years since that involvement has involved practical activity that I consider may be of professional or technical interest to the membership of the IRSE.

After a little thought however I realised how little I knew of the history of the Adelaide network, or indeed the history of any of Australia's rail networks, and decided that as many readers are likely to be in the same position as myself, ie. railway professionals unfamiliar with the history of the assets they work with daily, that a short summary of a selection of historic highlights pertaining to the Adelaide system would be as good a topic as any. Furthermore, and in order to tie in with the theme of this conference, I have elected to concentrate on the history of Adelaide Station and Yard itself rather than the entirety of the network.



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pdf.png 2006 - Nov - McDonald - Controlling The Alice Springs to Darwing Railway - A Case Study in Appropriate Technology

Wayne McDonald BE (Elec) FIRSE

Westinghouse Rail Systems Australia

The Alice Springs-Darwin Railway is the longest Australian rail construction undertaken in over 100 years. Trains travelling over its 1,420 km join with the existing Alice Springs-Tarcoola railway to provide a land bridge between the port of Darwin and the southern capital cities.

This paper describes the peculiar requirements for the signalling system to control the new (Alice Springs-Darwin) and existing (Tarcoola-Alice Springs) railways that both transverse long, sparse distances. Trains are controlled for the whole route from an Adelaide based computer assisted train order system compliant with the (Australian) Code of Practice of the Defined Interstate Rail Network and utilising electronic equivalents of the existing paper forms all linked to track overview display. Train pass and cross at autonomous, train-operated passing loops fitted with self restoring points interlocked over a vital end to end radio telemetry link.

The design of this signalling system is predicated on an expanding traffic volume from an initial low base and so the system has to both fulfil prime cost targets and provide expansion and automation capabilities to support the growing traffic without increasing Signaller and Driver loading. Foreshadowed enhancements are described.

ADrail required minimal trackside equipment that must operate ultra reliably in a harsh and remote environment where maintenance can be many hours away. Trackside communications infrastructure is almost non existent and trains must utilise satelite communications with the control centre or short range local radio.



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pdf.png 2006 - Nov - Furniss - The In Cab Activated Points System Enhancement for Trans Australia Railway

Paul Furniss BEng (Hons) CEng MIET

Australian Rail Track Corporation

The In Cab Activated Points System is a system which provides the Train Crews with a window of opportunity when approaching a crossing location to operate the points reverse in a controlled manner to allow the train to enter the crossing loop without the need to stop.

A self restoring points system exists on the Trans Australia Railway between Port Augusta and Kalgoorlie which provided considerable benefits at forty four crossing loops when it was introduced in 2000 by ARTC. The In Cab Activated Points System is an enhancement to the self restoring system so that a train movement into a crossing loop is as efficient as practicable.

This paper will review and describe the system components that have been used to provide the function of remotely reversing the points at the crossing locations across the Nullabor from within the locomotive cabs. The components to be described are the ground based systems at the loop end equipment huts, an air interface, and the train borne locomotive systems. A current project status is also provided.



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pdf.png 2006 - Nov - Foley - Matching Technology and Operational Requirements, The Safety Perspective

Peter Foley B App Sci (Mar Eng), BE (Mech), Grad Dip Bus Mgt (Tech Mgt)

Australian Transport Safety Bureau

This paper outlines the development of the 'safety investigation', the genesis of the Australian Transport Safety Bureau and its accident investigation methodology with reference to its systemic focus on the contribution of human factors issues, in particular, the man/machine interface.



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pdf.png 2006 - Nov - Erdos - The Trans Adelaide CTC Replacement Project

George D Erdos B. Tech Elec, FIEAust, CPEng, FIRSE, FPWI, MIIE

TransAdelaide

This paper is the final in a series to be made to the IRSE regarding TransAdelaide's Centralised Train Control (CTC) replacement project. In this paper I will review the project from inception through to commissioning. The paper is not intended to embrace the technical aspects of the project which will be covered by the principal contractor, United Group Infrastructure. However, in the paper I will provide a light hearted overview of some of phases of the project including definition, deliverables, elements of the implementation/commissioning and training as used to provide the operational system. Finally we will look at some of the lessons learned.



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pdf.png 2006 - Nov - 3 Hickson, Dimos - TransAdelaide CTC and PI System Upgrade



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